planktonic vs benthic
Microbiome 7, 153 (2019). Biodiversity, biogeography and conservation of diatoms. b Metabarcoding analysis provides insights into biogeographic pattern of diatoms along the mainstream of the Yangtze River, represented by the spatial distribution of Shannon diversity. At each sampling site, 10 L of well-mixed water was collected and then filtered onto 0.22 μm polycarbonate membranes (Millipore, USA) within 24 h. Filter membranes and sediment samples were stored in the laboratory at – 80 °C until further analysis took place. Moreover, seasonal fluctuations in water discharge appear to affect the community structure of planktonic diatoms, owing to the introduction of diatom species from the upstream freshwater source and to different hydrologic processes in spring and autumn . PubMed Google Scholar. Amplicons were purified using the AxyPrep DNA Gel Extraction Kit (Axygen Bioscience, Union City, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions and quantified using QuantiFluorTM-ST (Promega, USA). Alpha diversity indices (chao1, Shannon, and Goods coverage) were calculated using QIIME. In the present study, one-way ANOVA analysis revealed that certain OTUs exhibited significant variations in distribution immediately upstream and downstream of the Three Gorges Dam (P < 0.01) and Xiluodu Dam (P < 0.05). Benthic foraminifera include two major types of foraminifera. 3c, see the “Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) divisions” section). Nat Methods. Exploring the molecular basis of responses to light in marine diatoms. 2016;32:3246–51. Our study revealed that benthic diatoms represented by motile species in ecological guilds are typical consequences driven by environmental selection in a lotic-oligotrophic river, which highlights the particular importance of benthic diatoms in understanding biogeochemical cycles in world’s large river ecosystems.  investigated planktonic diatoms dominated by physical constraints at two stations of the River Adige, Italy. a Circular visualization of dominant diatoms at genus level in six sample types. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Finally, a total of 4573 unique sequences were retained in our reference database. Malviya et al. The LEfSe biomarker detection was performed in QIIME  using the logarithmic LDA threshold > 4 and the statistical parameters of P < 0.05. 2015;49:7597–605. Planktonic GPP increased with nutrients status, whereas benthic GPP decreased. For example, Actinocyclus spp., Aulacoseira spp., Cyclotella spp., Fragilaria spp., and Synedra spp. Correspondence to Montagnes DJS, Franklin DJ. Influence of diatom diversity on the ocean biological carbon pump. College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China, Jiawen Wang, Qingxiang Liu, Yuxin Liu & Qian Chen, Institute of Hydroecology, Ministry of Water Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430079, China, Institute of Infrastructure and Environment, School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, The King’s Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL, UK, State Key Laboratory of Plateau Ecology and Agriculture, Qinghai University, Xining, 810016, China, Beijing Innovation Center for Engineering Science and Advanced Technology, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China, You can also search for this author in Only the dominant genus with a mean relative abundance of ≥ 1% in all samples is depicted. Figure S9. Comparing the numerous studies of diatoms and eutrophication in oceans [14, 15] and lakes [16, 17] to date, it is clear that the present understanding of diatoms is relatively poor for lotic and oligotrophic rivers . Lake and Reservoir Management: Vol. Visco JA, Apotheloz-Perret-Gentil L, Cordonier A, Esling P, Pillet L, Pawlowski J. Planktonic is an antonym of benthic. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-019-0771-x. Meanwhile, environmental drivers of diatom communities were interpreted in terms of photosynthetic active radiation, temperature, channel slope, and nutrient conditions under varying landforms. Both the planktonic bacterial community (PBC) and benthic bacterial community (BBC) are important for biogeochemical processes in freshwater lakes. Sudden drops in relative abundance of OTUs belonging to specific benthic species (such as Pinnularia, Paralia, and Aulacoseira) occurred downstream of the dams (Additional file 1: Figure S15). Both planktonic and benthic species are sensitive to changes in food availability as well as physical environmental parameters, such as salinity and temperature. Other factors affecting interactions, such as river velocity, turbulent diffusion, algal sinking, and grazing remain to be further investigated . The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Adjective (-) Of or pertaining to plankton. UPARSE: highly accurate OTU sequences from microbial amplicon reads. Hydrol Res. The phylogeny tree, constructed by representative OTUs (accounting for > 90% sequence in all samples) and reference sequences (Additional file 1: Figure S2), further confirmed the accuracy of taxonomic assignment. Benthic (bottom-dwelling) foraminifera also use their pseudopodia for locomotion. In: Fontaine, T.D., Bartell SM, editor. While planktonic (suspended) and benthic (stream bed) cyanobacteria share similar traits, their visual appearances are quite different. Integrated biogeography of planktonic and sedimentary bacterial communities in the Yangtze River. Benthic and planktonic GPP varied strongly along the trophic gradient. Cookies policy. Air bubbles drawn in with the sample were eliminated by tapping and draining water while the syringe is pointing upwards. The environmental-based selection process driving the biogeographic pattern of diatoms is influenced by PAR, temperature, channel slope, and nutrient level. reported the importance of both environment and dispersal-related processes in controlling planktonic diatom community structure in stream and rivers, Sweden . Nature. LEfSe cladogram of planktonic (a) and benthic (b) diatom communities from four PAR regions. The effect of temperature and mixed species composition on diatom motility and adhesion. Relationships between community similarity and river channel slope for water-spring (a), water-autumn (b), sediment-spring (c), and sediment-autumn (d) samples. In March (spring) and October (autumn) of 2014, water and sediment samples were synchronously (i.e., within 1 week) collected for planktonic and benthic diatom identification at 50 national monitoring stations (the non-plateau area) along the mainstream and six major tributaries of the Yangtze River. Oikos. Dissolved CO2 was extracted by transferring 25 ml of ultra-high purity nitrogen at the field sites and then equilibrated with the headspace in the sample syringe by vigorous shake for 5 min. However, it remains unclear how the integrated spatiotemporal distributions of planktonic and benthic diatom communities are shaped by spatial dispersal and environmental selection processes in large rivers subject to complex natural and anthropogenic impacts. Intermittently, short‐lived and mainly asexually reproducing populations can replace the dominant population in the water column, without influencing the genetic structure of the benthic seed bank. Vannote RL, Minshall GW, Cummins KW, Sedell JR, Cushing CE. JWW and QXL performed the research. Nucleic Acids Res. Article Based on our results, we suggest that sill fjords maintain local long‐lived and well‐adapted protist populations, which continuously shift between the planktonic and benthic habitats. Variation partitioning of benthic diatom community matrices: effects of multiple variables on benthic diatom communities in an Austral temperate river system. Science. Article CAS Nature. Part of Third, the weak relationship between annual-averaged TN:TP and alpha-diversity of planktonic diatoms along the Yangtze River might be resulted from the selection of simpler indicator for nutrient level in a relatively oligotrophic river (Additional file 1: Figure S14). CAS Among others, the typical environmental components such as photosynthetically active radiation, temperature, channel slope, and nutrients condition are essential to diatom community accompanied with the spatial dispersal. 4, pp. In fact, previous reports on the dynamics of riverine diatoms have mostly focused on tributaries, small rivers, reaches, stations, and estuaries [18,19,20]. Article The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Supports from BIC-ESAT and Majorbio Company (Shanghai, China) are gratefully acknowledged. Arai H, Fukushima T. Impacts of long-term increase in silicon concentration on diatom blooms in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan. Figure S15. Cermeño P, Falkowski PG. PubMed Ecol Model. PubMed Of these, 40 species are planktonic, that is they float in the water. 2016;47:130–42. Figure S1. Liu et al. Beyond biogeographic patterns: processes shaping the microbial landscape. Floating in the open sea rather than living on the seafloor. Furthermore, the monitored TN:TP was significantly related to community composition of diatoms in both water and sediment (P < 0.05, Additional file 1: Table S3). (2017) reported similar ndings in an investigatio n on patterns and pr ocesses in microeukaryotes from coastal The channel slope dramatically changes along the Yangtze River, primarily due to the basis of geology, climate and geomorphology. Planktonic (adjective) Floating in the open sea rather than living on the seafloor. A low-profile guild is defined as having high reproduction rate, low nutrient and light availability, and slow-moving diatoms. Moreover, Chen et al. Knowl Manag Aquat Ecosyst. In other words, the motile guild can respond quickly to environmental changes, and benthic diatoms dominated by motile guild are more appropriate to reflect the influence of environmental heterogeneity along the river. QIIME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data. Upstream Freshwater and Terrestrial Sources Are Differentially Reflected in the Bacterial Community Structure along a Small Arctic River and Its Estuary. J Theor Biol. Domingues RB, Anselmo TP, Barbosa AB, Sommer U, Galvão HM. Developed for an introductory-level oceanography course. 2006;4:102–12. Zhu G, Wang S, Wang Y, Wang C, Risgaard-Petersen N, Jetten MS, et al. Kitner M, Poulíčková A. Littoral diatoms as indicators for the eutrophication of shallow lakes.
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